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Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior

Posted on: Junho 15, 2020 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior

Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior

In addition, the author provides an insight in the context of a group, where people may prefer to listen to one another in order to relate well and work together effectively. He also emphasizes on the requirement for good listening skills in order to foster and sustain impeccable interpersonal relationships at school and beyond.

Response

This book takes me back once again to my years as a young adult, when I was constantly on the defense when I spoke to my elders. Back then I felt like everyone was against me for some reason and each conversation could sound as a pending accusation. The Petersen’s text took me back once again to the time when I was constantly finding myself at loggerheads with authorities, including my parents, teachers, and even elder siblings and loved ones. It turns out that I got into each conversation with full stomach and flat head, thus I never really comprehended what every person had to say to me. It explains why I was particularly considered as a difficult individual with very little support from those that I expected to support me. Every time someone tried to correct me about something I had done, i might start explaining my own side of the story without really processing what they were trying to tell me. This often frustrated the people who were trying to make me a better person by offering me an advice and correcting my mistakes.

From reading the book, I believe that the main reason for my being labeled as a difficult person is the fact that I was incorrigible. It came about because a lot of people believed that I was not taking instructions from others. My inability to change for the better is based on the fact that I spent all the time during conversations strategizing on how to get out of confrontation, even when the talker is trying to help me out. The fact that I did not listen signifies that more often than not I did not know what these people were saying. My stomach was constantly filled with frustration, fear and guilt for being wrong all the time. Now I know that if I had taken only a few moments to listen to what I was being told then I may have avoided numerous confrontations that I now think were utterly unnecessary.

Reflection

This book gives me an insight how to avoid having meaningless confrontations in the long run by simply listening to what other folks have to say instead of focusing so much on what I would like to tell them. Previously, I got into conversations with a stomach filled with feelings and emotions that needed to be let out. I was unable to listen because I focused an excessive amount of on what I was going to say in response to whatever I was being told. Instead of having space in my head for processing the information that I was being provided by the talker, I had a flat brain syndrome that impeded my power to understand concerns that were being relayed to me.format of profile of a person As a result, I was branded since the kid that never listens.

Petersen’s text enlightens me on how to avoid the flat brain tango, which often creates the environment for confrontation that would otherwise be unnecessary. Instead of forcing people to tell me about their feelings, I am now able to listen and understand these feelings based on the things that they are willing to share. Rather than using manipulation, i will now use my good listening skills to understand the interlocutor’s situation and connect with it carefully before speaking up. It helps me to avoid hurting other people when they trust me making use of their issues and feelings.

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Another insight is on the importance of listening to the relationships that I have with my family, friends and workmates. Listening to someone implies getting to know them and being able to relate with them in a way that they would find acceptable and relevant. It shows that listening is the key skill in looking towards better relationships all round, be they formal or casual.

Action

As a listener, i will say that I participate in the category of ritual listeners who stay quiet for as long as the interlocutor has no one thing to say but would otherwise be glad to generally share his or her own thoughts as soon as an opportunity presents itself. It implies that I do not necessarily listen to the talker in my conversations but rather I wait to them to pause or ask a question so that i will jump in with my very own thoughts and opinions on the matter. As a result, all the time that I spend being quiet during that conversation is spent strategizing on a comeback statement. My first plan of actions is to change what I do when I am silent during a conversation. Instead of trying to find loopholes in the talker’s argument so that i will insert my very own witty remarks, i am going to give attention to what they are actually saying so that i will think about their opinion and consider the subject from their perspective. While my thoughts seem like they are the most important to me, I have learnt that good conversation is the one in which every party involved actually wins in that in the end there is an agreement in opinion.

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instead of being defensive and seeking to establish that I am right and the talker is wrong, I intend to give attention to understanding what the talker is trying to tell me and on being able to restate his or her concerns in my own words before going ahead to speak out my opinion on the subject. It is important because I mostly find myself unable to respond accurately to an argument because I have absolutely no idea what points the talker may have raised while I was absorbed in my own thoughts buying a way out of the confrontation. It is important for me to focus on having fruitful conversations, in which everyone else comes out satisfied with the grade of conversation.

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Order Essay using this Title by Shaw (1966) is a book that describes the story of Stanley, a delinquent going through different phases of criminology, and his influences and experiences. This paper will examine important aspects of Akers’ differential reinforcement theory as part of social learning, theory, using evidence of Stanley’s values, attitudes and influences as presented in (Shaw, 1966).example argumentative essay The integration of concepts plus the evidence from the book will provide a foundation for understanding the elements of the theory in detail.

The Jack Roller

The roots of juvenile delinquency are a subject of many criminological research studies. explains a story of Stanley, a juvenile delinquent, whom Clifford Shaw comes across during his interviews with juveniles. The book takes readers through various events that happened in Stanley’s life from childhood to adulthood. The story introduces personal details that affect Stanley plus the factors why he has become involved in criminal activities. The influences of his environment, family background, and cognitive behavioral characteristics are also described in the book.

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Criminological Theory Discussion

The social learning theory states that learning is an element that depends upon individual’s cognitive and behavioral processes. They allow a person to learn from others through modeling, observing and imitating. Ronald Akers believed that individuals in society developed motivation to commit crimes because of their associations (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). In this regard, persons understand their criminal skills through personal interactions making use of their peers or other people. Therefore, a deviant type of behavior is learned through observing and modeling social factors from the social context perspective.

Akers’ social learning theory is dependent on several maxims, one of which advocates for vicarious reinforcement (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). It shows that individuals learn through observing other people’s behavior and they are affected by its consequences. Additionally, the theory is based on the principle of modeling, whereby individuals develop new behavioral tendencies from observing behavioral patterns of other people in society. Reciprocal determinism is also important as it shows that an individual is an active recipient of valuable information. In this regard, people depend on their behavioral, cognitive and environmental stimuli that influence their actions in the long-run. According to Cullen and Agnew (2003: 159), differential reinforcement enables visitors to sharpen their criminal skills.

Application of Akers’ Social Learning Theory to

Akers states that criminal behavior is learned through conditioning, modeling, and imitation (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). In , Stanley describes his home environment as a basis for his deviant behavior. He explains, “My life was filled with sorrow and misery. The cause was my stepmother, who nagged me, beat me, and drove me out of my very own home” (Shaw, 1966: 47). He continues to explain that the influence from his stepbrother and friends introduced him to the world of crime. These people urged him to stealing. In addition, his stepmother also encouraged such activities. Therefore, observing his stepbrother and friends made Stanley model criminal behavioral patterns.

Environment stimuli also enhance criminal activities (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Growing up in an unstable environment whereby violence was a norm made him think that violence was the best way of communicating. Therefore, he imitated his stepmother’s actions towards him. He also learned the act of stealing by imitating his older stepbrother and friends. He was conditioned to this behavior because of the attention he accorded them and his cognitive abilities that enhanced his survival.

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a important element in Akers’ social learning theory is the rate of relapse or addiction to criminal behavior that individuals acquire (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Once they understand different criminal activities, they perfect the art and become addicted to committing crimes. Stanley shows this addiction in . He becomes so addicted to the art of crime that makes friends with the former delinquents and criminals. His friendship with a former inmate from Saint Charles makes him perfect the activities associated with jack-rolling. Stanley justifies his actions after he had assaulted and robbed a gay man on the streets. He said, “He tried to ensnare me, and I figured I was right to relieving him of his thirteen bucks” (Shaw, 1966: 86).

Akers also explains that the type and frequency of learning depend on the norms according to which these reinforcement elements are applied (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Even after his release from the detention center, Stanley found it difficult to live life without crimes. His life beyond your institution failed to mirror the lessons learned at the detention home. Stanley failed to start to see the requirement for going back home after he had been released. Therefore, he was used by a prostitute. His attempts to get factory jobs were futile for the reason that he had become addicted to the life of taking things and never having to work too hard to get them. For Stanley, the temptation of getting a quick dollar was hard to resist (Shaw, 1966: 78).

Failing woefully to have a stable home had a significant influence on Stanley’s life. The lack of a stable home environment reinforced criminal activities he was used to, making them become a norm in his life (Cullen & Agnew, 2003: 201). explains how Stanley found it easy spending nights in alleys and vacant houses. In addition, he did not reside in foster homes assigned to him. All chances he had of getting a good home were ruined by his self-destruction activities like being violent or stealing.

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Stanley’s jack-rolling activities were influenced by his psychological and cognitive issues accumulated since he was young (Shaw, 1966: 115). He said that he lacked the influence of his father in his life. “My father was gone all the time and when he was there he was drinking heavily” (Shaw, 1966: 61). The lack of a positive influence from his father made him being affected by other people in society. His behavioral tendencies made him incline to learning how to commit crimes and perfect his jack-rolling activities. His life on West Madison Street was an outlet for his emotions, especially those that he had experienced because of his father’s negative influences on him. He became very violent, targeting innocent victims, incapacitating them and stealing in the long run (Shaw, 1966:116). At the age of fifteen, he enjoyed the influence of other delinquents in alleys because he longed for a father influence on him. The streets reinforced his frequency of acquiring criminal behavior, being an important element in social learning theory (Cullen & Agnew, 2003).

Akers’ social learning theory has an effect on individuals who seem to have low self-esteem (Cullen & Agnew, 2003). Stanley believed that people looked down on him. Therefore, he had to build a psychological defense to protect him. Stanley’s involvement in criminal activities makes him think that he is trapped in this type of life and contains become a victim of different circumstances. “For the first time in my life, I realized that I was a criminal. I became one as I sat there and brooded. At first I was almost afraid of myself, being such as a stranger to my own self” (Shaw, 1966: 103). Once he has become accustomed to the life of crime, he finds himself valuable to other criminals. Criminal activities have become his source of self-esteem.

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Prediction

Using the logic of Akers’ differential reinforcement theory, I believe that Stanley continues living a life of crime. Stanley’s deviation to criminal activities is attributed to the differential reinforcement that has already occurred in his life. In this regard, the strength of these elements makes me believe in the probability that he will resort to criminal behavior. His association with the people on West Madison Street can be a reason to lure him back into jack-rolling activities. The pleasure and self-confidence that Stanley derives from jack-rolling may also make him resorting to committing crimes.

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Order Essay using this Title gives an inner perspective into the life of Stanley and different issues that he faced, making him a criminal. The book can be effective in providing a background of Stanley’s life that explains some of his behavioral tendencies. Nonetheless, it fails to explain what the long run holds for Stanley, making readers form their conclusions. Akers’ differential reinforcement theory highlights the importance of reinforcements and their impact on criminal behavior. Nonetheless, it fails to describe the impact of psychological, physical and biological elements of learning criminal behavior in society. Nonetheless, the most important aspect to take from the book is that crime is an induced activity. It can be easily controlled through effective mentorship programs, especially for teenagers like Stanley, to prevent the development of criminal activities later on. Book Review "Plagiarism Free Prices From only 12,99$/page

Population

The country features a slightly higher amount of females than males. Of the 55.91 million people, 28.53 million are women, and 4.47 (8%) are at least 60 years of age, while 30.1% are young ones below 15 years (Stats SA, 2016). At the same time, life expectancy by mid-2016 was 65.1 years for females and 59.7 years for males, with infant mortality rate of 33.7 per 1,000 live births; about 12.7% for the country’s population lived with HIV, representing a whole 7.03 million people (Stats SA, 2016). These demographic figures show that the health status of the nation is in jeopardy.

Government

The South African government is divided into three governmental arms. The President is the head of the government, and he forms the executive arm together with the cabinet and deputy ministers ( Government of South Africa, n.d.b). The other two are the legislative plus the judicial arms respectively. The constitutional democracy rules it, with the national, provincial, and local government levels having their legal and executive authorities in their spheres. The Ministry of Health carries out all government health functions in the united states.

Economy

The country enjoys a huge workforce between 15 and 64 years of age. This accounts for more than 65% of the population with more than half of the workforce being 25 years and below (The World Bank, 2015). Areas that power South Africa’s economy are agriculture, mining, manufacturing, construction, commerce, transport, and finance among many others. The World Bank ranks South Africa as an upper middle-income country with the second largest economy after Nigeria (SAinfo Reporter, 2015). In 2014, its GDP was $350.1-billion and with a per capita of $6 483 (SAinfo Reporter, 2015). Such a thing shows how the African economic giant thrives as compared to other countries in the continent.

State of Health (Disease/Violence/Accidents)

The health status of people in South Africa is worse because numerous diseases and other causes of death kill many people every year. The median time from the time of HIV infection to death is 11.5 years for women and 10.5 years for men, as the death crude rate is down from that of 2002, which was 12.9 deaths per 1,000 visitors to 9.9 death per 1,000 in 2016 (Stats SA, 2016). This implies that HIV kills men faster than women, and although mortality rate reduces, it is still high. Injuries cause more than 60,000 deaths every year, with 46% being homicides, while self-inflicted and road traffic injuries account for 9.1% and 26.7% of injury-related mortality respectively ( The World Health Organization, n.d.). Therefore, homicides are the leading cause of injury deaths in South Africa followed by road accidents. Nonetheless, HIV kills more individuals than all the injuries combined. Other common health problems that kill many people every year in the united states include malaria, respiratory infections, prematurity and birth asphyxia, diarrhea, congenital abnormalities, neonatal sepsis, and many non-communicable diseases in addition to cardiovascular conditions.

Culture/Traditional Medicine

Traditional medicine is a deeply rooted on the list of South African population, especially the native blacks. It is the oldest form of health care system in the united states, and it has existed as an ancient and culture-bound healing method for various diseases for most centuries (Abdullahi, 2011). Thus, herbal medicines utilized by traditional healers include herbs, finished herbal products, containing parts of plants, plant materials as active ingredients, and herbal preparations. Also, the Southern Bantus of this African continent believe in the ancestors who direct and influence affairs of the living, and ill health as well as misfortunes is thought to come from ritual pollution, witchcraft, or ancestral wrath (Sobiecki, 2014). People also believe in curses as the cause of some problems brought about on some people or their families because of their evil deeds. South Africans have two types of traditional health practitioners – the diviner (Zulu isangoma) and the herbalist (Zulu inyanga) (Sobiecki, 2014). Diviners are spiritual specialists who communicate with ancestral spirits to diagnose problems of their patients before counseling, instructing on ritual ceremonies, or prescribing herbal medicine to treat the problem. Herbalists do not communicate with the spirits to diagnose nevertheless they use herbal medicines to treat ailments.

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Healthcare System and Delivery

The healthcare system of South Africa is comprised of a large public sector, a small but fast-growing private sector, and finally, the non-governmental (NGO) sector. The state funds the public sector, with an increase of than 40% of the health system expenditure coming from the national treasury, and 11% of the entire government budget is spent on health, which is more than the 5% GDP recommendation of the World Health Organization (Jobson, 2015). The explanation for such expenditures is the significant burden posed by tuberculosis and HIV among other diseases. Additionally, the country experiences high levels of poverty and unemployment, compelling the state to bear the burden of financing the healthcare system (Jobson, 2015). The private sector comprises of private healthcare practitioners, and NGO focus mostly on HIV and tuberculosis.

Government health-related agencies and health regulatory organizations. The Ministry of Health of South Africa features a sole responsibility of regulating the health of citizens. It really is aided by the legislative arm of the government that formulates the laws, through which it operates, plus the Medicines Control Council (MCC), a medicine regulatory body. The MCC applies standards of the Medicines and Related Substance ACT that governs functions of manufacturing, distribution, sale, and marketing (Medicines Control Council, n.d.). The Ministry of Health regulates all areas of health provision in the united states, including financing and ranking of healthcare facilities from the national to the local level ( Government of South Africa, n.d.a). Therefore, the MCC plus the Ministry of Health are the main government agencies influencing health care.

Healthcare personnel and hospitals. Although South Africa has many healthcare facilities, it suffers from acute shortage of both physicians and nurses. It offers 5,560 dentists and 38,236 health practitioners with 1 doctor serving 4,219 people, which means that 23.7 physicians serve 100,000 people (Jobson, 2015). Also, South Africa has 270,437 registered nurses, serving the population of 55.91 million people, meaning that around 483.7 nurses serve 100,000 people (MedicalBrief, 2016). The country has 4,200 public health facilities, 376 public hospitals, and 143 of them can be found in urban places, while the remaining ones are in rural areas (Jobson, 2015). Therefore, South Africa suffers from a acute shortage of both physicians and nurses.

The nursing education system and accrediting organizations. The South African Nursing Council has the sole responsibility of accrediting nursing education institutions as well as the offered training programs. South Africa has 129 public schools of nursing education and extra 101 from the private sector (South African Nursing Council, n.d.). The Council has accredited many institutions to offer nursing education from public and private colleges and universities. It further investigates and takes legal action against the non-accredited institutions of nursing.

Nursing associations. Nurses in South Africa can join various nurse professional organizations. According to Sigma Theta Tau International (n.d.), the country has two professional nursing associations that include the DENOSA (Democratic Nursing Organization of South Africa) plus the South African Society of Occupational Health Nurse Practitioners. DENOSA is the largest one, with more than 84,000 member nurses; it was created in 1996 (DENOSA, n.d.). Other than bringing unity, DENOSA advocates the rights and welfare of nurses all over the country. South African nurses may also be members of the International Council of Nurses (ICN), in which DENOSA is an influential member (ICN, 2015). In fact, South Africa hosted the 2016 Annual Meeting of the ICN.

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Health Priorities

Together with international organizations, the government works hard to ensure that the health status of the country is improved. According to the Government of South Africa (n.d.a), the Department of Health has four priorities: increasing the life expectancy of people, reducing maternal-child mortality, decreasing the burden of tuberculosis and combating HIV and AIDS, and strengthening the health system. Other organizations also work hard to simply help the government achieve its health priorities, given that mortality rates in the united states are high, with many individuals living with HIV and AIDS, and tuberculosis. Mothers2mothers is an organization that trains South African mothers with HIV on how to prevent maternal to youngster transmission of this infection in addition to how to live healthy lives (Rosenkranz, 2012). The Southern African AIDS Trust funds partners who work to reduce the prevalence of HIV and AIDS as well as tuberculosis to enhance programs of prevention, treatment, support, and impact mitigation among others (Rosenkranz, 2012). Therefore, the South African nation is dedicated to achieving its health priorities, with the government and non-governmental organizations taking the lead.

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Bugl, H. et al. (2007). DNA synthesis and biological security. Nature Biotechnology, 25, 627-629.

The authors review the dominant legal concerns associated with security issues in the area of DNA synthesis for commercial purposes. They have determined key motivation and maxims of manipulation of genetic material used in the US. They explain that effective law enforcement in this sphere includes interdicting, investigating, and deterring such criminal actions. Bugl et al. (2007) have determined five main goals that is met in dealing with this problem. The main strengths of this article include its high systematization value as well as a amount of specific suggestions about a DNA synthesis screening process. The main weakness is the lack of theoretical justification of reasons because the authors believe their method is the most effective from a practical perspective.

Heyman, J. (1999). Why interdiction? Immigration control at the United States-Mexico border. Regional Studies, 33(7), 619-630.

The author examines the current regulations in the sphere for the US-Mexico border control. A number of contradictions and legal inefficiencies are specified. Heyman believes that political interest dominate in this sphere when compared with economic one. The ultimate purpose of these actions is opposing globalization in all its forms. Heyman has provided deep ethnographic work that supports his hypotheses. The political control also directly affects specific technologies which can be applied during border control. The main strengths of this article are the clear formulation of the initial hypothesis and its empirical verification through available data. The main weaknesses include the absence of practical tips for improvement in addition to unsupported claim about long-term benefits of globalization for both countries under consideration.

Bayley, D. (2006). Law enforcement plus the rule of law: Is there a tradeoff? Criminology & Public Policy, 2(1), 133-154.

The author analyzes evidence-based arguments about the violation of police the rule-of-law maxims, as well as its influence on personal and collective interests. The research counters the position of many police officers about the justification of cutting legal corners for the sake of common interests. Thus, Bayley has specified seven reasons that show that violating these maxims contradicts the interests of police. The author proposes to change the dominant police culture in accordance with a large set of empirical evidences. The main strengths of this article include its critical assessment of various alternative hypotheses, and reliance on practical evidences to determine the truth. Its main weaknesses are concentration on the narrow area without further elaboration for the legal system in general; also, author proposes to give this research in further studies.

Steffen, G., & Candelaria, S. (2004). Currency seizures during interdiction investigation. Law & Order, 52(3), 40-47.

The authors review the dominant methods used in the process of currency seizure during interdiction investigation in the sphere of drug control. The authors examine the current law restrictions that exist regarding law enforcement as officials should prove the existence of a criminal nexus. The requirements of proper documentation are inspected in detail. All key elements should be correspondingly documented. The authors also examine the role of interview skills. The optimal packaging and transportation strategy is outlined. All decisions of currency seizures should be supported by evidences and gathered information. The main strengths of the article include the precise presentation of all formal requirements in the sphere of currency seizure. The main weakness refers to the lack of legal analysis and corresponding suggestions.

Rider, B. (1996). The practical and legal aspects on interdicting the flow of dirty money. Journal of Financial Crime, 3(3), 234-253.

The author examines the motivation of financial crimes including premeditation. Rider specifies some practical problems associated with difficulties of determining the sources of obtaining wealth. Although the government and other institutions implement numerous measures for creating obstacles for money laundering, it really is highly plausible that this problem will continue to exist later on due to strong incentives from potential criminals. Thus, it really is highly problematic to develop measures that will completely neutralize criminals’ incentives for money laundering. The main strengths of this article include the explanation of motivational aspects of criminals’ actions, and specification of reasons of low efficiency of government policies in this field. The main weakness is the absence of an integrated approach towards dealing with this problem.

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Wilson, D., Walsh, W., & Kleuber, S. (2006). Trafficking in human beings: Training and services among US law enforcement agencies. Police Practice & Research: An International Journal, 7(2), 149-160.

The authors explain the current serious public concerns regarding trafficking of women and young ones. They outline amount of federal policies which can be recently introduced by the US government in order to improve the situation with human trafficking. Wilson, Walsh, & Kleuber claim that local law enforcement officers could be more efficient when compared with federal agents. Their reasoning is that they’re more aware of the existing problems with prostitution and similar conditions that may be directly linked to human being trafficking. In general, the current system existing at the local level seems to be inefficient since the majority of correct actions are not taken. The main strengths of this article include the search for improvement and providing specific and potentially efficient suggestions. The main weakness is the absence of proposals regarding the optimization of operations between federal and local agents.

Budowle, B. et al. (2007). Role of law enforcement response and microbial forensics in investigation of bioterrorism. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 437-449.

The authors point out that the growing threats of bioterrorism force national governments to pay additional attention to introducing new and more effective biosecurity measures. Budowle et al. propose to distribute optimally the main responsibilities among governments, the private, and public sectors. Three methods of validation are proposed in order to investigate the existing risks, and select the adequate responding strategy.